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It is also not known whether the co‐localization of fetal and maternal immune cells contributes to autoimmune disease. One approach to understanding the function of fetal cells in maternal tissues is to consider parallels with the function of the placenta during pregnancy.

Another common technique is to detect variable tandem repeat numbers in mothers versus offspring in microsatellite loci (short tandem repeats) within the Human Leukocute Antigen (HLA) A and B 30, or detecting differences in unshared HLA‐DRB1 alleles 104. At the moment, several studies have found male DNA in the human and mouse maternal brain 47, 75, but the function of these cells, if any, is unknown. Though we found differences in characteristics between unvaccinated and vaccinated women, in the multivariate analyses no association was found between H1N1 vaccination and small-for-gestational-age (odds ratio [OR] 0. Maternale overlijdens door een rechtstreekse obstetrische oorzaak zijn overlijdens die het gevolg zijn van obstetrische verwikkelingen (zwangerschap, arbeid en nasleep van de bevalling), van medische handelingen, van het uitblijven van medische handelingen, van een ongepaste behandeling of van een aaneenschakeling van gebeurtenissen voortvloeiend uit een van de voornoemde factoren.

Our assessment of the programme of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy in England is consistent with high vaccine effectiveness. It is in the fitness interest of the offspring to enhance maternal survival and contribute to maintenance of the maternal body.

Maternal‐fetal conflict not only predicts the evolution of fetal adaptations to enhance resource flow to offspring, but also maternal countermeasures to limit that flow 3.

Microchimerism has been detected in all placental types (hemochorial, epithelial, endothelial), including primates 14, dogs 27, cows 28, and mice 8, 29. In the fetal circulation a continuous rise in the level of both IgG and IgA was observed between 17 and 41 WG.

This leads to the prediction that the capacity of the maternal immune system to limit the abundance of fetal cells may have positive impacts on maternal health. Conclusion In women given pertussis vaccination in the third trimester, there is no evidence of an increased risk of any of an extensive predefined list of adverse events related to pregnancy.Vaccine effectiveness was 90% (95% CI 82 to 95) when the analysis was restricted to cases in children younger than 2 months. Eind 2015 heeft de Gezondheidsraad het advies uitgebracht om kinkhoestvaccinatie tijdens de zwangerschap aan te bieden via een nationaal programma. PCR is more accurate than immunofluorescence for detecting microchimeric cells 42, but is not as sensitive as flow cytometry, with PCR detecting microchimeric events at about 0. Multi-component (≥ three) aP vaccines are effective and show less adverse effects than wP vaccines for the primary series as well as for booster doses. Infants younger than 3 months were also the only age group in which there were fewer cases in 2013 than in 2011 (118 cases in 2011 vs 72 cases in 2013), before the resurgence.

However, parent‐offspring interactions are characterized by both cooperation – because shared genes lead to fitness benefits from maternal investment in offspring 1 – and also conflict – because parents and offspring do not share all genes and future maternal reproduction can be negatively impacted by too much maternal investment in current offspring 2. The transfer of these cells is asymmetrical, with more fetal cells being transferred to the mother than vice versa 6.De minister van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS) is voornemens dit advies over te nemen, mits het uitvoerbaar en betaalbaar blijkt te zijn.

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